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Legal system

In Romania, access to the justice system for foreign citizens is ensured under the same conditions as for Romanian citizens. This means foreign citizens can file any legal action in Romania in the same manner and with the same rights that any Romanian citizen may.

The language for procedures in a court of law is Romanian. However, foreign citizens and stateless persons who do not speak or understand Romanian at a level that would allow them to follow the procedures by themselves, have a right to use an interpreter.

The Romanian legal system is a hierarchical system of courts, with a civil law system. The structure and organization of the judiciary are found both in the Constitution and Law No. 304/2004 on Judicial Organisation. The civil courts of Romania are organized as follows:

  1. High Court of Cassation and Justice (Înalta Curte de Casaţie şi Justiţie)
  2. 15 Courts of Appeal (Curţi de Apel)
  3. 41 County Courts and the Bucharest Municipal Court (Tribunale)
  4. 188 Local Courts (Judecătorii)

Within most courts, there are specialized sections or panels for civil and criminal cases, as well as other areas of the law. A number of specialized courts (tribunale specializate) also exist, such as the Argeș Commercial Court and the Braşov Family Court.

The Constitutional Court of Romania (Curtea Constituțională a României) acts as an independent constitutional jurisdiction and is not part of the ordinary court system.

For more information see:

Ministry of Justice:

High Court of Cassation and Justice:

Portal to find courts in Romania: